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The objective of the Center for Novel Pathways to Quantum Coherence in Materials (NPQC) is to dramatically expand our control and understanding of coherence in solids by building on fundamental materials discoveries in recent years. The fundamental importance of the two-level system or qubit was recognized in the early days of quantum mechanics. To fully exploit the potential of quantum-based sensing, communication, and computation, we must find new pathways to protect and use quantum coherence in solid-state environments that are closer to ambient temperatures.  Developing the power to manipulate coherence involving many two-level systems, in realistic solid-state environments, requires understanding materials whose basic properties emerge from coherence between spatial regions or from coherent transport at sample boundaries.